What is chronic and acute respiratory failure?
Respiratory failure is a condition characterised by abnormal levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood due to inadequate gas exchange in the lungs.
Causes of respiratory failure
Any disease, condition or accident that impairs breathing, can cause respiratory failure. These include:
- conditions affecting the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as:
- muscular dystrophy
- spinal cord injuries
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
- injuries to the chest or lungs or problems with the spine, such as scoliosis (a curve in the spine)
- lung conditions, such as:
- COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
- ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome)
- pulmonary embolism
- cystic fibrosis.
Symptoms of respiratory failure
Low levels of oxygen can cause symptoms such as:
- shortness of breath
- irregular heartbeats
- a bluish colour on the skin, lips and fingernails
- loss of consciousness.
A high level of carbon dioxide can cause rapid breathing and confusion.
At Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospitals, the following consultants can treat private patients with chronic and acute respiratory failure:
- Dr Alanna Hare - Consultant physician in respiratory and sleep medicine
- Dr Matthew Hind - Consultant respiratory physician
- Dr Sundeep Kaul - Consultant in critical care and respiratory medicine
- Professor Michael Polkey - Consultant respiratory physician
- Professor Anita Simonds - Consultant physician in respiratory and sleep medicine.
Diagnosing respiratory failure
To diagnose respiratory failure, firstly the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood are checked. Your doctor may carry out one of two tests:
In this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear, which uses light to detect how much oxygen is in the blood.
Arterial blood gas test
This test involves a blood sample being taken and sent to a laboratory for further analysis.
Other tests to diagnose respiratory failure may include:
You may need to have a chest x-ray to determine the underlying cause of respiratory failure.
If an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhthymia) is suspected as a result of respiratory failure, then an ECG may be necessary.
Treatment for respiratory failure
Chronic (long-term) respiratory failure can be treated at home, or if the symptoms are severe, in a long-term care centre.
Acute respiratory failure, on the other hand, is often classed as a medical emergency, which requires treatment in intensive care.
Treatment involves providing much-needed oxygen to the lungs and other organs, as well as removing carbon dioxide from the body. It will also involve treating the underlying cause of the condition.